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incorporated non-profit corporation Conflict Transformation and Peacebuilding:
A Selected Bibliography

Catherine Morris

Evaluation of Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding Initiatives

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Ardon, Patricia, Njeri Karuru, Manuela Leonhardt, Andrew Sherriff. Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) and NGO Peacebuilding: Experiences from Kenya and Guatemala. A Briefing Paper. London, UK: International Alert, September 2002.

Anderson, Mary B. "Framework for Analyzing Aid's Impact on Conflict." Chapter 6 in Do No Harm: How Aid Can Support Peace - Or War. Local Capacities for Peace Project, Boulder, London: Lynne Reinner Publishers, 1999.

Argryis C., and D. Schon. "Participatory Action Research and Action Science Compared: A Commentary." In Participatory Action Research, edited by William F. Whyte. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1991.

Atmar, Haneef, and Jonathan Goodhand. Aid, Conflict and Peacebuilding in Afghanistan What Lessons Can Be Learned?. London, UK: International Alert, February 2002. Available online at

Ayeni, Victor. "Evaluating Ombudsman Programmes." Ombudsman Journal 11 (1993): 67.

Bercovitch, J. and R. Wells. "Evaluating Mediation Strategies: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis." Peace and Change 18(1)(1993): 3-25.

Blakeway, Marsha S., and Daniel M. Kmitta. Conflict Resolution Education Research and Evaluation: Synopsis and Bibliography. Washington, DC : National Institute for Dispute Resolution, 1998.

Bock, Joseph G. "Towards Participatory Communal Appraisal." Community Development Journal 36 (2)(April 2001): 146-153. Annotation

Bush, Kenneth. A Measure of Peace: Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) of Development Projects in Conflict Zones. Working Paper No. 1. Ottawa, ON: The International Development Research Centre, 1998. Annotation

Bush, Kenneth. "Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) Five Years On: The Commodification of an Idea." In Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation. Berlin, Germany: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management, 2001.

Bush, Robert A. Baruch. "Defining Quality in Dispute Resolution : Taxonomies and Anti-Taxonomies of Quality Arguments." University of Denver Law Review 66 (1989): 335-80.

Canadian Peace-building Coordinating Committee. Towards a Lessons-Learned Framework for NGOs in Peace-building: A Preliminary Report. Ottawa: CPCC, 1999.

Carment, David, and Dane Rowlands. "Three's Company: Evaluating Third Party Intervention in Intrastate Conflict." Journal of Conflict Resolution 42 (1998): 572-599.

Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict. A Framework for Preventing the Re-emergence of Violence. New York: Carnegie Corporation of New York, June 1999.

Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict. Preventing Deadly Conflict. Final Report. New York: Carnegie Corporation of New York, 1997.

Conflict Prevention and Post-Conflict Reconstruction (CPR) Peacebuilding Network. Compendium of Operational Frameworks for Peacebuilding and Donor Coordination. Hull, Canada: CIDA, various dates.

Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), Peace-building Unit. Conflict Prevention and Post Conflict Reconstruction. A Matrix of Analytical Tools Available Internationally for Peace-building and Donor Co-ordination. Hull, Canada: CIDA, 1998.

Church, Cheyanne, and Julie Shouldice. The Evaluation of Conflict Resolution Interventions: Part II: Emerging Practice and Theory. Ulster: International Conflict Research (INCORE), 2003. Available online (pdf) at

Church, Cheyanne, and Julie Shouldice. The Evaluation of Conflict Resolution Interventions: Framing the State of Play. Ulster: International Conflict Research (INCORE), 2002. Available online (pdf) at

Church, Cheyanne, Anna Visser, and Laurie Johnson. Single Identity Work: An Approach to Conflict Resolution in Northern Ireland. Ulster: International Conflict Research (INCORE), August, 2002. Available online (pdf) at

Cockell, John G. "Peace-building and Human Security: Frameworks for International Response to Internal Conflict." In Preventing Violent Conflicts: Past Record and Future Challenges, Report No. 48, edited by Peter Wallensteen, 203-230. Uppsala: Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, 1998.

Collins, Cindy. "Critiques of Humanitarianism and Humanitarian Action." In Humanitarian Co-ordination: Lessons learned: Report of a Review Seminar, 12-26. Stockholm: OCHA, April 3-4, 1998.

Danet, Brenda. "Toward a Method to Evaluate the Ombudsman Role." Administration and Society 10: 3 (1978): 335-370.

DAC Working Party on Aid Evaluation. Guidance for Evaluating Humanitarian Assistance in Complex Emergencies. Paris: OECD, 1999.

Davies, John L., and Robert Ted Gurr. Preventive Measures: Building Risk Assessment and Crisis Early Warning Systems. Boulder: Rowman and Littlefield, 1997.

Duffield, Mark, "Evaluating Conflict Resolution. Context, Models and Methodology." In NGOs in Conflict - an Evaluation of International Alert, R 1997:6, edited by Gunnar M. Sørbø, Joanna Macrae and Lennart Wohlgemuth, 79-112. Bergen: Ch. Michelsen Institute, 1997.

Duffield, Mark. Aid Policy and a Post-Modern Conflict: A Critical Review. BirminghBirmingham University, School of Public Policy paper, 1998.

Esman, Milton J. Can Foreign Aid Moderate Ethnic Conflict? Peaceworks No. 13. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 1997.

Esser, John P. "Evaluations of Dispute Processing: We Do Not Know What We Think and We Do Not Think What We Know." Denver University Law Review 66 (1989): 499-562.

Esser, John P. "Evaluations of Dispute Processing: We Do Not Know What We Think and We Do Not Think What We Know." In The International Library of Essays in Law and Legal Theory, edited by Michael Freeman. New York: New York University Press; Aldershot, England: Dartmouth Publishing Co., 1995.

Francey, C., et al. "Evaluating Dispute Resolution Programs." In Mediation in the Justice System: Conference Proceedings, edited by M R. Volpe et al, 104-120. Chicago, IL: American Bar Association Special Committee on Resolution of Minor Disputes, 1983.

Gaigals, Cynthia, with Manuela Leonhardt. Conflict-Sensitive Approaches to Development: A Review of Practice. London, UK: International Alert, Saferworld, IDRC, 2001.

Galanter Marc, and Mia Cahill. "Most Cases Settle": Judicial Promotion and Regulation of Settlements." Stanford Law Review 46 (1993/94): 1339.

Galanter, Marc. "Compared to What? Assessing the Quality of Dispute Processing." Denver University Law Review 66 (1989): xi-xiv, xii.

Garfinkel, Renee. What Works?: Evaluating Interfaith Dialogue Programs. Special Report 123. Washington, DC: US Institute of Peace Press, 2004. Available online:

Goodhand, Jonathan, and Philippa Atkinson. Conflict and Aid: Enhancing the Peacebuilding Impact of International Engagement: A Synthesis of Findings from Afghanistan, Liberia and Sri Lanka. London, UK: International Alert, December 2001. Available online at

Gurr, Ted, and Barbara Harff. Early Warning of Communal Conflicts and Genocide: Linking Empirical Research to International Responses. Tokyo: The United Nations University, 1996.

Hoffman, Mark. "Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment Methodology: Evolving Art Form or Practical Dead End?". In Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation. Berlin, Germany: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management, 2001.

Hudson, J. and B. Galaway. "Financial Restitution: Toward an Evaluable Program Model." Canadian Journal of Criminology 31(1)(1989): 1-18.

Hughes, Stella P., and Anne L. Schneider. "Victim-Offender Mediation: A Survey of Program Characteristics and Perceptions of Effectiveness." Crime and Delinquency 35(2)(1989): 217-33.

Kressel, Kenneth, and Dean Pruitt, eds. Mediation Research: The Process and Effectiveness of Third-Party Intervention. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass, 1989.

Lab, S.P. Crime Prevention: Approaches, Practices and Evaluations. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing Company, 1988.

Lam, Julie. The Mediation Program Evaluation Kit. Amherst, MA: National Association for Mediation in Education (NAME), 1989.

Laprise, Anne-Marie. Programming for Results in Peacebuilding: Challenges and Opportunities in Setting Performance Indicators. Prepared for the Strategic Planning Division of Policy Branch. Ottawa: Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), 1998.

Lederach, John Paul. Peacebuilding in Divided Societies: Tools for Strategic and Responsive Evaluation. Working paper prepared for the Organization of American States PROPAZ Guatemala Project. OEA/PROPAZ Workshop, Guatamala, December 12-13, 1996.

Lederach, John Paul. "Strategic and Responsive Evaluation." Chapter 10 in Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies. Washington, D.C.: USIP, 1997.

Leonhardt, Manuela. Conflict Impact Assessment of EU Development Co-operation with ACP Countries: A Review of Literature and Practice. London, UK: FEWER, International Alert & Saferworld, June 2000.

Leonhardt, Manuela. "Towards a Unified Methodology: Reframing PCIA." In Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation. Berlin, Germany: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management, 2001.

Luban D. "The Quality of Justice." Denver University Law Review 66 (1989): 381.

Lund, Michael S. Formulating Effective Early Responses to Potential Violent Conflicts: The Role in FEWER's Work of the Assessment of Preventive Responses' Impacts on Peace and Conflict. Discussion Paper. Washington, DC: Centre for Strategic and International Studies, May 5, 1999.

Lute, Donald E. Improving National Capacity to Respond to Complex Emergencies, Report to the Carnegie Commission, April 1998.

Macfarlane, Julie. "Designing and Evaluating Dispute Resolution Systems and Processes." Chapter 6 in Dispute Resolution Readings and Cases, edited by Julie Macfarlane, 583-700. Toronto: Emond Montgomery Publications, 1999.

Moore, D.B. "Evaluating Family Group Conferences." In Criminal Justice Planning and Coordination. Conference Proceedings No. 24, edited by D. Biles and S. McKillop. Canberra, AUS: Australian Institute of Criminology, 1994.

National Association For Community Mediation. Community Mediation Center Self-Assessment Manual. Washington DC: NAFCM Press, 2002.

National Institute for Dispute Resolution (NIDR). Empowerment Evaluation: A Special Issue on Evaluation Theories and Models that Enhance Collaboration and Conflict Resolution. NIDR Forum 32 (Winter 1997).

Nyheim, David, Manuela Leonhardt, and Gaigals Cynthia. Development in Conflict: A Seven Step Tool for Planners. London, UK: FEWER, International Alert & Saferworld, June 2001. Available online at

O'Doherty, Hugh. "Mediation Evaluation: Status Report and Challenges for the Future." Evaluation Practice 10(4) (1989): 8-19.

Ogus, Anthony, et al. "Evaluating Alternative Dispute Resolution: Measuring the Impact of Family Conciliation on Costs." Modern Law Review 53 (1990): 57-74.

O'Leary, Rosemary, and Lisa B. Bingham, eds. The Promise and Performance of Environmental Conflict Resolution. Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future, 2003.

Pennell, J. and G. Burford. Family Group Decision Making: New Roles for 'Old' Partners in Resolving Family Violence. Research/Evaluation Instruments. Vol. 2. St. John's, Canada: Family Group Decision Making Project, School of Social Work. Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1995.

Reychler, Luc. "Proactive Conflict Prevention: Impact Assessment?" International Journal of Peace Studies. 3 (2) (July 1998). Available online at

Reychler, Luc. An Evaluation of the International Efforts in Burundi. Draft Conference Paper. CPN Annual Conference 1999. Ebenhausen: CPN, 1999.

Reychler, Luc. The Conflict Impact Assessment System (CIAS): A Method for Designing and Evaluating Development Policies and Projects. Ebenhausen: CPN, 1999.

Reychler, Luc. Conflict Impact Assessment (CIAS) at the Policy and Project Level. Paper presented at the International Conference on development and conflict, 24-26 September 1998, European University Centre for Peace Studies, Stadtschlaining, Austria.

Roche, Chris, Impact Assessment in Development Organisations. Oxford: Oxfam, 1999.

Roberts, Tim. A Self-Evaluation Manual for Community-Based Mediation Programs: Tools for Monitoring and Recording Data. Victoria, British Columbia: UVic Institute for Dispute Resolution, 1993.

Rolph, Elizabeth and Erik Moller. Evaluating Agency Alternative Dispute Resolution Programs: A Users' Guide to Data Collection and Use. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Institute for Civil Justice, 1995. read a review.

Ross, Marc Howard. "Action Evaluation in the Theory and Practice of Conflict Resolution."Peace and Conflict Studies 8 (1) (2001). Available on-line at

Ross, Marc Howard. "PCIA as a Peacebuilding Tool." In Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation. Berlin, Germany: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management, 2001.

Ross, Marc Howard, and Jay Rothman, eds. Theory and Practice in Ethnic Conflict Management: Conceptualizing Success and Failure. Basingstoke and London: Macmillan, 1999.

Rothman, Jay. "Action Evaluation and Conflict Resolution Training: Theory, Method and Case Study." International Negotiation 2 (1997): 451-70.

Rothman, Jay. "Action Evaluation and Conflict Resolution: In Theory and Practice." Mediation Quarterly 15 (2) (Winter 1997): 119-131

SIPU International AB, Centre for Development Research, and International Peace Research Institute. Assessment of Lessons Learned from Sida Support to Conflict Management and Peace Building. Final Report. Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, 2000.

Spencer, Tanya. Active Learning Network on Accountability and Performance in Humanitarian Action: A Synthesis of Evaluations of Peacebuilding Activities Undertaken by Humanitarian Agencies and Conflict Resolution Organisations London, UK: ALKNAP, 1998. (online)

Stiefel, Matthias. "Participatory Action Research as a Tool for Peacebuilding: The WSP Experience." In Peacebuilding: A Field Guide, edited by L. Reychler & T. Paffenholz, 265-276. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2001.

Stulberg, J.B., and B.R. Montgomery. "Design Requirements for Mediator Development Programs." Hofstra Law Review 15(3)(1987): 499-533.

Walgrave, L. "Mediation and Community Service as Models of a Restorative Approach: Why Would It Be Better? Explicating the Objectives as Criteria for Evaluation." In Restorative Justice on Trial: Pitfalls and Potentials of Victim-Offender Mediation: International Research Perspectives, edited by H. Messmer and H.-U. Otto, 343-354. Dordrecht, NETH: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.

World Bank, Operations Evaluation Department. Designing Project Monitoring and Evaluation, Lessons and Practices No. 8. World Bank, 1996.

World Bank, Operations Evaluation Department. Evaluating Development Operations: Methods for Judging Outcomes and Impacts, Lessons & Practices No. 10. World Bank, 1997.

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