the Peacemakers Trust
labyrinth logo is a trademark of Peacemakers Trust, a Canadian federally
incorporated non-profit corporation Conflict Transformation and Peacebuilding:
A Selected Bibliography

Catherine Morris

Acknowledgement, Apology and Forgiveness

Advanced Search on the Peacemakers Trust website
Suggestions, correction or comments
Back to Table of Contents

Search for an item in libraries near you: >>
Use Google™ to search Peacemakers Trust:

On the Peacemakers Trust site see also the bibliography pages on Reconciliation and Transitional Justice, Restorative Justice, Religious Perspectives on Conflict Resolution, International Conflict, Indigenous Peoples and Conflict Resolution and other pages. Note: Peacemakers Trust Apologies Workshop October 3, 2003.

Alter, Susan. Apologising for Serious Wrongdoing: Social, Psychological and Legal Considerations. Report for the Law Commission of Canada, 1999. Available on line at

Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958.

Augsburger, David. Caring Enough to Forgive. Scottsdale: Herald, 1981.

Augsburger, David. Helping People Forgive. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1996.

Augsburger, David W. The New Freedom of Forgiveness. Chicago: Moody Press, 2000.

Azar, Fabiola, Etienne Mullet and Genevieve Vinsonneau. "The Propensity to Forgive: Findings from Lebanon." Journal of Peace Research 36 (1999): 169-181.

Backhouse, Frances. "Sorry Seems to be the Hardest Word." National 10 (June-July 2001): 28.

Barkan, Elazar. "Group Apology as an Ethical Imperative." In Taking Wrongs Seriously: Apologies and Reconciliation, edited by Elazar Barkan and Alexander Karn, 3-30. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2006.

Barkan, Elazar. The Guilt of Nations: Restitution and Negotiating Historical Injustices. New York: Norton, 2000.

Barkan, Elazar, and Alexander Karn, eds. Taking Wrongs Seriously: Apologies and Reconciliation. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2006.

Bavelas, Janet, "An Analysis of Formal Apologies by Canadian Churches to First Nations," Occasional Paper No. 1, Centre for Studies in Religion and Society, University of Victoria, July 2004. Available at:

Bennett, Mark, and Christopher Dewberry. "'I've said I'm sorry, haven't I?' A study of the identity implication and constraints that apologies create for their recipients." Current Psychology 13 (1)(1994): 10-21.

Bennett, Mark, and Deborah Earwaker. "Victim's responses to apologies: The effects of offender responsibility and offense severity." Journal of Social Psychology. 134 (4)(1994): 457-465.

Blanchard, Kenneth, and Margret McBride. The One-Minute Apology A Powerful Way to Make Things Better. New York: HarperCollins, 2003.

Bolstad, Max. "Learning from Japan: The Case for Increased Use of Apology in Mediation." Cleveland State Law Review. (48)(3) (Summer 2000): 545-58.

Brooks, Roy L. "The Age of Apology." In When Sorry Isn't Enough: The Controversy Over Apologies and Reparations for Human Injustice, ed. Roy Brooks. New York: New York University Press, 1999.

Brooks, Roy L. "The New Patriotism and Apology for Slavery." In Taking Wrongs Seriously: Apologies and Reconciliation, edited by Elazar Barkan and Alexander Karn, 213-33. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2006.

Celermajer, Danielle. "The Apology in Australia: Re-Covenanting the National Imaginary." In Taking Wrongs Seriously: Apologies and Reconciliation, edited by Elazar Barkan and Alexander Karn, 153-84. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2006.

Claes, R., and D. Clifton. Needs and Expectations for Redress of Victims of Abuse at Residential Schools. Ottawa: The Law Commission of Canada, October, 1998.

Cloke, Kenneth. Mediating Dangerously: The Frontiers of Conflict Resolution. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

Cohen, Jonathan R. "Advising Clients to Apologize" Southern California Law Review. 72 (1999) 1009- 1069.

Cohen, Jonathan R. "Apology and Organizations: Exploring an Example from Medical Practice" Fordham Urban Law Journal 27 (2000): 1447-1482.

Cohen, Jonathon R. "Apology and Organizations: Exploring an Example from Medical Practice." Fordham Urban Law Journal 27 (5) (June 2000): 1447-82

Cohen, Jonathan R. "Coping with Lasting Social Injustice" Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice 13(2)(2007): 259-293.

Cohen, Jonathan R. "The Culture of Legal Denial." Nebraska Law Review 84(2005-2006): 247-312

Cohen, Jonathan R. "The Immorality of Denial" Tulane Law Review 79(4)(2005): 903-

Cohen, Jonathan R. "Legislating Apology: The Pros and Cons" University of Cincinnati Law Review 70(3) (Spring 2002): 819-872.

Cohen, Jonathan R. "The Path between Sebastian's Hospitals: Fostering Reconciliation after a Tragedy." Barry Law Review 17(2012): 89-131

Cohen, Stanley. States of Denial: Knowing about Atrocities and Suffering. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2001.

Conner, Roger L., and Patricia J. Jordan, "Never Being Able To Say You're Sorry: Barriers to Apology by Leaders in Group Conflicts." Law and Contemporary Problems 72(2)(2009): 233-260

Corntassel, Jeff, and Cindy Holder. "Who's sorry now? Government Apologies, Truth Commissions, and Indigenous Self-Determination in Australia, Canada, Guatemala, and Peru." Human Rights Review 9(4) (2008): 435-464.

Cose, Ellis. Bone To Pick: Of Forgiveness, Reconciliation, Reparation, and Revenge. New York: Atria Books, 2004.

Coulmas, F. "'Poison to your soul': Thanks and apologies contrastively viewed." In Conversational Routine: Explorations in Standardized Communication Situations and Prepatterned Speech, edited by F. Coulmas. The Hague & New York: Mouton, 1981.

Couper, David. "Forgiveness in the Community: Views From an Episcopal Priest and a Former Chief of Police." In Exploring Forgiveness, ed. Robert D. Enright and Joanna North, 121-130. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998.

Dwyer, Susan. "Reconciliation for Realists." Ethics and International Affairs (1999): 13.

Enright, Robert D., and Richard P. Fitzgibbons. Helping Clients Forgive: An Empirical Guide for Resolving Anger and Restoring Hope. Washington, DC : American Psychological Association, 2000.

Enright, Robert D. "Counseling Within the Forgiveness Triad: On Forgiving." Counseling & Values 40(2)(1996): 107-127.

Enright, Robert D. and Joanna North, eds. Exploring Forgiveness. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998.

Fuchs-Burnett, Taryn. "Mass Public Corporate Apology." Dispute Resolution Journal 57(2)(May-July 2002): 27-32, 82-84.

Funk-Unrau. Neil. "Renegotiation of social relations through public apologies to Canadian Aboriginal peoples." Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change 29 (November 2008):1-19.

Gibney, Mark, and Erik Roxstom. "The Status of State Apologies." Human Rights Quarterly 23 (2001): 911-939.

Gobodo-Madikizela, Pumla. A Human Being Died That Night. Cape Town: David Philip Publishers, 2003.

Gobodo-Madikezela, Pumla. "Trauma, Forgiveness and the Witnessing Dance: Making Public Spaces Intimate." Journal of Analytical Psychology 53, no. 2 (2008): 169-88.

Goldberg, Stephen Eric Green, and Frank Sander, "Saying You're Sorry." In Negotiation Theory and Practice, eds. J. William Breslin and Jeffery Z. Rubin, (Cambridge: The Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School, 1991), pp. 141-146.

Govier, Trudy. "The Apology Initiative." Chapter Four in Taking Wrongs Seriously: Acknowledgement, Reconciliation, and the Politics of Sustainable Peace, 67-88. New York: Humanity Books, 2006.

Govier, Trudy. "The Ethics of Forgiveness." Interaction 6(3) (Fall, 1994): 10.

Govier, Trudy. Forgiveness and Revenge New York: Routledge, 2002.

Govier, Trudy, and Wilhelm Verwoerd. "Forgiveness: the Victim's Prerogative." South African Journal of Philosophy 21(1)(2002): 97-111.

Govier, Trudy, and Wilhelm Verwoerd.. "The Promise and Pitfalls of Apologies." Journal of Social Philosophy 33 (Spring 2002):

Govier, Trudy, and Wilhelm Verwoerd. "Taking Wrongs Seriously: A Qualified Defence of Public Apology." Saskatchewan Law Review 65 (Winter 2002): 139-62.

Haley, John O. "Comment: The Implications of Apology" Law & Society Review 20 (4)(1986) 499-507.

Hampton, Jean. "The Retributive Idea." In Forgiveness and Mercy, edited by Jeffrie Murphy and Jean Hampton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Heimreich, Jeffrey S. "Does 'Sorry' Incriminate? Evidence, Harm, and the Protection of Apology, Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy 21 (2012): 567-609

Helmick, Raymond and Rodney Petersen. Forgiveness and Reconciliation. Templeton Foundation Press, 2001.

Henderson, Michael. Forgiveness: Breaking the Chain of Hate. Wilsonville, Oregon: BookPartners, 1999.

Hoffman, David A. "The Use of Apology in Employment cases." Employee Rights Quarterly 2(3)(Winter 2002): 21

Irani, George Emile. "Acknowledgement, Forgiveness and Reconciliation in Conflict Resolution: Perspectives from Lebanon." Chronos 5 (2002): 195-220.

Irani, George, and Laurie King-Irani. Recognizing the Other, Forgiveness, and Reconciliation: Lessons From Lebanon. Beirut: Lebanese American University, 1996.

James, Matt. "Redress Politics and Canadian Citizenship." In Canada: The State of the Federation 1998/99: Exploring the Ties That Bind, ed. Harvey Lazar and Tom McIntosh, 247-281. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1999.

James, Matt. "Recognition, Redistribution and Redress: The Case of the 'Chinese Head Tax'." Canadian Journal of Political Science 37(4) (2004): 883-902.

James, Matt. "Wrestling with the Past: Apologies, Quasi- Apologies, and Non-Apologies." In The Age of Apology, ed. Mark Gibney, Rhoda E. Howard-Hassmann, 137-153. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press: 2008.

Keeva, Steven. "Does Law Mean Never Having to Say You're Sorry?" ABA Journal (December 1999): 64-68, 95. Available online at

Kellett, Ann J. "Healing Angry Wounds: The Roles of Apology and Mediation in Disputes Between Physicians and Patients." Missouri Journal of Dispute Resolution (1987): 111-32.

Kleefeld, John C., "Thinking Like a Human: British Columbia's Apology Act." UBC Law Review 40(2)(October 2007): 769-808.

Kraman, S. S., and G. Hamm, G. "Risk management: Extreme Honesty May Be the Best Policy." Annals of Internal Medicine 131 (1999): 963-967.

Krog, Antjie. Country of My Skull: Guilt, Sorrow, and the Limits of Forgiveness in the New South Africa. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2000.

Latif, E. "Apologetic Justice: Evaluating Apologies Tailored Toward Legal Solutions" Boston University Law Review 81(2001): 289-320.

Lazare, Aaron. "Go Ahead, Say You're Sorry." Psychology Today 28 (1) (January - February, 1995): 40-42.

Leunissen Joost M., et al., "The Apology Mismatch: Asymmetries Between Victim's Need for Apologies and Perpetrator's Willingness To Apologize" Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 49(3)(2013): 315-24

Levi, Deborah L. "Note: The Role of Apology in Mediation" New York University Law Review, 72 (5) (1997): 1165-1210.

Lin, Nuannuan. "The Restorative Role of Apology in Resolving Medical Disputes: Lessons From Chinese Legal Culture." Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (2015): 699–708.

Linn, Dennis, Sheila Fabricant Linn, and Matthew Linn. Don't Forgive Too Soon: Extending the Two Hands that Heal. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1997.

Lloyd, Rhiannon, and Kristine Bresser. "Healing the Wounds of Ethnic Conflict: The Role of the Church in Healing, Forgiveness and Reconciliation." Geneva: Le Rucher/Mercy Ministries, 1998.

Marks, Susan. "Apologising for Torture." Nordic Journal of International Law 73 (2004): 365–385

Mayer, Bernard. "The Nature of Resolution." In The Dynamics of Conflict Resolution: A Practitioner's Guide, 97-108. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2000.

McCallum, Dulcie. The Need to Know: Administrative Review of Woodlands School. Submitted to Ministry of Children and Family Development, August 2001. Available online at

McKay, Stan and Silman, Janet. "A First Nations Movement in a Canadian Church." In The Reconciliation of Peoples: Challenge to the Churches, ed. Gregory Baum, and Harold Wells, 172-83. New York: Orbis Books, 1997.

McNamara, Marilyn R., and Mandeep K. Dhami. "The Role of Apology in Restorative Justice." Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Restorative Justice held at Simon Fraser University, B.C., Canada, June 1-4, 2003. Available online at

Mihai, Mihaela, and Mathias Thaler, eds. On the Uses and Abuses of Political Apologies. London and New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2014.

Minow, Martha. Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: Facing History After Genocide and Mass Violence. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1998.

Morris, Catherine, "Legal Consequences of Apologies in Canada," Draft working paper presented October 3, 2003, University of Victoria, at a workshop on "Apologies, Non-Apologies, and Conflict Resolution". Available online at;

Murphy, Jeffrie, and Jean Hampton, eds. Forgiveness and Mercy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Neckers, Bruce W. "The Art of the Apology." Michigan Bar Journal 81 (10)(2002):.

Negash, Girma. "Apologia Politica: An Examination of the Politics and Ethics of Public Remorse in International Affairs." International Journal of Politics and Ethics 2(2)(June 2002): 119-143.

Negash, Girma. Apologia Politica: States and Their Apologies by Proxy. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2006.

O'Hara, Erin Ann, and Douglas Yarn. "On Apology and Consilience." Washington Law Review 77 (2002): 1121-1192.

Olick, Jeff, and Brenda Coughlin. "The Politics of Regret: Analytical Frames." In Politics and the Past: On Repairing Historical Injustices, ed. John Torpey. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003.

Ombudsman of British Columbia. The Power of an Apology: Removing the Legal Barriers. Special Report No. 27 to the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia. Victoria, BC: BC Office of the Ombudsman, February 27, 2006. Available online

Orenstein, Aviva. "Apology Expected: Incorporating a Feminist Analysis into Evidence Policy Where You Would Least Expect It." Southwestern University Law Review 28 (1999): 221.

Pace, K. M., Fediuk, T. A., & Botero, I. C. (2010). The acceptance of responsibility and expressions of regret in organizational apologies after a transgression. Corporate Communications 15(4), 410–427.

Petrucci, Carrie J. "Research evidence: What We Know about Apology." Behavioral Science and the Law 20 (2002): 337-362.

Petrucci, Carri J. "Apology in the Criminal Justice Setting; Evidence for Including Apology as Additional Component in the Legal System." Behavioral Science and the Law 20 (4)(2002): 337-362.

Philpot Catherine R., and Matthew J. Hornsey. "What Happens When Groups Say Sorry: The Effect of Intergroup Apologies on Their Recipients." Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 34(2008): 474-487.

Prager, Carol A.L., and Trudy Govier, eds. Dilemmas of Reconciliation. Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2003.

Presser, Lois. "Remorse and Neutralization Among Violent Male Offenders." Justice Quarterly 20(4)(2003): 801-825.

Regan, Paulette. "An Apology Feast in Hazelton: Indian Residential Schools, Reconciliation, and Making Space for Indigenous Legal Traditions." In Indigenous Legal Traditions, edited by Law Commission Canada. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2007.

Regan, Paulette. Unsettling the Settler Within: Canada's Peacemaker Myth, Reconciliation, and Transformative Pathways to Decolonization. PhD Dissertation. Victoria, BC: University of Victoria, 2006.

Rehm, Peter H., and Denise R. Beatty, "Legal Consequences of Apologising." Journal of Dispute Resolution 1 (1996): 115-30.

Ricker, Di Mari. "When it Comes to Making an Apology, Make it Count by Making it Sincere." Student Lawyer 27(3) (Nov 1998): 8.

Robbennolt, Jennifer K. "Apologies and Legal Settlement: An Empirical Examination" Michigan Law Review 102 (2003): 460-516

Robbennolt, Jennifer K. "Attorneys, Apologies, and Settlement Negotiation." Harvard Negotiation Law Review 13 (2008): 349-97.

Robbennolt, Jennifer K., "The Effects of Negotiated and Delegated Apologies in Settlement Negotiation." Law and Human Behavior 37(2)(2013): 128-135.

Robbennolt, Jennifer K. "Apologies and Settlement Levers" Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 3(21006): 333-

Robbennolt, Jennifer K., and Robert M. Lawless. "Bankrupt Apologies." Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 10(4) (2013): 771-796.

Robbennolt, Jennifer K., and Lesley Wexler. "Designing Amends for Lawful Civilian Casualties." Yale Journal of International Law 42 (2017): 121-183.

Scher, Steven J., and John M. Darley. "How Effective Are the Things People Say to Apologize? Effects of the Realization of the Apology Speech Act." Journal of the Psycholinguistic Research 26 (1997): 127-140.

Scherer, Michael, Kathryn L. Cooke, and Everett L. Worthington, Jr. "Forgiveness Bibliography." Chapter 31 in Handbook of Forgiveness, edited by Everett L. Worthington, Jr. Routledge, 2005.

Schmidt, Janet P. "The Place of Confession in Restorative Justice." Vision 3 (2002): 54-59.

Schmitt, Manfred, et al. "Effects of objective and subjective account components on forgiving." Journal of Social Psychology 144(5)(2004): 465-85.

Schneider, Carl D. "What It Means to be Sorry: The Power of Apology in Mediation" Mediation Quarterly 17 (3) (Spring. 2000): 265-280. Available online at

Shirvington, Virginia. "When Failure to Apologise Becomes Intransigence." Law Society Journal 37 (3) (April 1999): 30.

Shriver, Donald W., Jr. An Ethic for Enemies: Forgiveness in Politics. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Shriver, Donald W. Jr. "Forgiveness: A Bridge Across Abysses of Revenge." In Forgiveness and Reconciliation. Edited by Raymond Helmick and Rodney Petersen, 151-170. Templeton Foundation Press, 2001.

Shriver, Donald W. Jr. "Is There Forgiveness In Politics: Germany, Vietnam and America." In Exploring Forgiveness, ed. Robert D. Enright and Joanna North, 131-149. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998.

Shuman, Daniel W. "The Role of Apology in Tort Law. Judicature 83 (4) (Jan-Feb 2000):180.

Sugimoto, Naomi. Japanese Apology Across Disciplines. Hauppauge NY: Nova Publishers, 1999.

Taft, Lee. "Apology Subverted: The Commodification of Apology" Yale Law Journal 109 (March 2000): 1135-1160.

Takaku, Seiji. "The Effects of Apology and Perspective Taking on Interpersonal Forgiveness: A Dissonance-Attribution Model of Interpersonal Forgiveness. Journal of Social Psychology 141(4)(2001): 494-109.

Tannen, Deborah. "Apologies: What It Means to Say 'Sorry'." Washington Post, August 23, 1998. Available online at

Tannen, D. "I'm Sorry, I Won't Apologise" New York Times Magazine, July 21, 1996. Available online at

Tannick, Marshall H., and Ayling, Theresa, J. 1996. "Alternative Dispute Resolution by Apology: Settlement by Saying 'I'm Sorry'." The Hennepin Lawyer, 65(6) July-Aug 1996): 22-25.

Tavuchis, Nicolas. Mea Culpa: A Sociology of Apology and Reconciliation. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press, 1991.

Tutu, Desmond. No Future Without Forgiveness. New York, NY: Doubleday, 1999.

Vincent, C., M. Young, and A. Phillips. "WHy Do People Sue Doctors? A Study of Patients and Relatives Taken Legal Action." The Lancet 343(1994): 1609-1613.

Wagatsuma, Hiroshi, and Arthur Rosett. "The Implications of Apology." Law & Society Review 20 (4)(1986) 461-98.

Wallace, B. "The Politics of Apology" Maclean's 111(3) (19 January 1998): 33.

Weinberg, Nancy. "Does Apologizing Help? The Role of Self-Blame and Making Amends in Recovery from Bereavement." Health & Social Work 20 (4)(1995): 194-300.

Weiner, Bernard, et al. "Public Confession and Forgiveness." Journal of Personality 59(2)(1991): 281-312.

Wiesenthal, Simon. The Sunflower: On the Possibilities and Limits of Forgiveness. New York, NY: Schocken Books, 1998.

Worthington, Everett L., ed. Dimensions of Forgiveness: Psychological Research and Theological Perpsectives. Chicago, IL: Templeton Foundation Press, 1998.

Worthington, Everett L. Five Steps to Forgiveness: The Art and Science of Forgiving. New York: Crown Publishers, 2001.

Worthington, Everett L. Jr., editor. Handbook of forgiveness. New York: Routledge 2005.

Wu, A. W. "Handling Hospital Errors: Is Disclosure the Best Defense?" Annals of Internal Medicine, 131 (1999): 970-972.

to top of page

Return to Introduction and Table of Contents
Return to Peacemakers Trust

photo copyright Mats Flemstrom
photo © MF

Adversarial Justice Limits . Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) . Apology & Forgiveness . Arbitration . Arts & Peacework . Books for Children & Youth . Caseflow Management . Collaborative Law Practice . Community Conflict . Conflict Analysis . Conflictos y Paz . Conflict Resolution & Conflict Management . Conflict Transformation . Critical . Culture, Ethnicity & Conflict . Dispute Resolution Systems Design . Emotions & Conflict . Environment, Public Policy & Conflict . Evaluation . Game Theory . Gender & Conflict . Human Rights . Humanitarian Action, Development . Indigenous Peoples . International Conflict . Judicial Dispute Resolution . Media, Conflict and Society . Mediation, Family . Mediation, Mandatory . Music of Peace . Negotiation . Negotiation, Crisis . Negotiation, Humanitarian . Nonviolent Direct Action . Ombudsman . Psycho-Social Perspectives . Post-Secondary Education . Reconciliation/Transitional Justice . Religious Perspectives . Restorative Justice . Schools . Standards and Ethics . Technology, Computers . Terrorism . Theories of Conflict . Videorecordings . Workplace, Labour Conflict . Peacebuilding and Reconciliation in Rwanda . Reviews and Annotations . Acknowledgements . Search