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A Selected Bibliography:
Peacebuilding and Reconciliation in Rwanda

Compiled by Catherine Morris

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Books, Articles and Reports Relevant to Conflict Transformation and Reconciliation in Rwanda

The main focus of this bibliography is on conflict transformation and reconciliation including gacaca tribunals. There are also titles concerning what led to the 1994 genocide. Development of this bibliography is in progress. At present the list has only English language titles. There are numerous French language titles to be added later.

Conflict Resolution, Reconciliation and Peacebuilding    |    Training Materials on Reconciliation and Conflict Resolution in Rwanda    |    International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)    |    National Courts and Gacaca Courts    |    Genocide: History, Events, Impacts and Aftermath    |    Videorecordings

Conflict Resolution, Reconciliation and Peacebuilding in Rwanda

Alusala, Nelson. Disarmament and reconciliation: Rwanda's concerns Occasional Paper 108. Pretoria, Capetown, Nairobi, Addis Ababa: Institute for Security Studies, June 2005. Available (pdf) at

Amstutz, Mark. "Is Reconciliation Possible After Genocide? The Case of Rwanda." Journal of Church and State 48(3)(2006): 541-565.

Arnold, Kent. "Training Local Peacebuilders: The Challenge of Building Training Capacity: The Center for Conflict Resolution Approach in Burundi." In Peacebuilding: A Field Guide. edited by Luc Reychler and Thania Paffenholz, 277-90. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner, 2001.

Assefa, Hizkias. "Reconciliation." In Peacebuilding: A Field Guide . edited by Luc Reychler and Thania Paffenholz, 336-42. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner, 2001.

Baines, Erin K. "Gender research in violently divided societies: Methods and ethics of 'international' researchers in Rwanda." In Researching conflict in Africa: Insights and experiences, edited by Elisabeth Porter, et al. Tokyo, New York: United Nations University Press, 2005.

Clark, Phil, and Zachary D. Kaufman. eds. After Genocide: Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict Reconstruction, and Reconciliation in Rwanda and Beyond. New York and London: Columbia University Press and C. Hurst & Co., 2008.

Colletta, Nat J., and Michelle L. Cullen. Violent Conflict and the Transformation of Social Capital: Lessons from Cambodia, Rwanda, Guatemala, and Somalia. Washington: The World Bank, 2000. Available at

Dawson, John. "Hatred's End: A Christian Proposal to Peacemaking in a New Century." In Forgiveness and Reconciliation: Religion, Public Policy and Conflict Transformation, edited by Raymond G. Helmick, SJ and Rodney Petersen, 229-56. Philadelphia and London: Templeton Foundation Press, 2001.

Feliciati, Clara Chapdelaine. "Restorative Justice for the Girl Child in Post-conflict Rwanda." Journal of International Women's Studies 7(4)(May 2006). Available at

Fisher, Joanna. "The Role of NGOs in Institution-Building in Rwanda." In Subcontracting Peace: The Challenges of NGO Peacebuilding, edited by Oliver P. Richmond, and Henry F. Carey, 183-190. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing, 2005.

Friedley, Kathie. "A Ministry of Reconciliation: The Umuvumu Tree Project in Rwanda." Restorative Justice Online News. Washington DC: Prison Fellowship Internationa, February 2003. Available at

Guillebaud, MEg. Rwanda: The Land God Forgot? Revival, Genocide and Hope. Grand Rapids, MI: Monarch Books, 2002.

Institute for Justice and Reconciliation (IJR). Evaluation and Impact Assessment of the National Unity and Reconciliation Commission (NURC). Kigali: IJR and NURC, November 2005.

Kerstens, Paul. "'Deliver us from original sin': Belgian apologies to Rwanda and the Congo." In The age of apology: Facing up to the past, edited by Mark Gibney et al. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008.

King, Régine Uwibereyeho. "Trauma, Healing and Reconciliation in Rwanda." International Journal of Disability, Community & Rehabilitation 1(3). Available at

Katongole, Emmanuel M. "Christianity, Tribalism, and The Rwanda Genocide." In A Future for Africa: Critical Essays in Christian Social Imagination, 95-117. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

Katongole, Emmanuel M. "Christianity, Tribalism, and The Rwanda Genocide." Logos: A Journal of Catholic Thought and Culture 8(3)(2005): 67-93.

Lloyd, Rhiannon. "Principles of Healing and Reconciliation in Rwanda." Geneva: Le Rucher Ministries, September 1998.

Longman, Timothy, and Theoneste Rutagengwa. "Memory and Violence in Post-Genocide Rwanda," In States of Violence: Politics, Youth, and Memory in Contemporary Africa, edited by Edna G. Bay and Donald L. Donham. University of Virginia Press, 2006.

Marysse, Stefaan, Filip Reyntjens, and Stef Vandeginste, eds. L'Afrique des Grands Lacs: Annuaire 2006-2007 Volume 11. Paris: Harmattan, 2006.

McNairn, Rosemarie. "Building capacity to resolve conflict in communities: Oxfam experience in Rwanda." In Gender, peacebuilding, and reconstruction, edited by Caroline Sweetman.Oxford UK: Oxfam, 2005.

Mukangendo, Marie Consolée. "Caring for children born of rape in Rwanda." In Born of war: Protecting children of sexual violence survivors in conflict zones, edited by R. Charli Carpenter. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press, 2007.

Mutamba, John, and Jeanne Izabiliza. The Role of Women in Reconciliation and Peace Building in Rwanda: Ten Years After Genocide: 1994-2004 Contributions, Challenges and Way Forward. Kigali: National Unity and Reconciliation Commission, May 2005.

Mzvondiwa, Cecilia Ntombizodwa. "The role of women in the reconstruction and building of peace in Rwanda: Peace prospects for the Great Lakes Region." African Security Review 16(1) Available at

National Unity and Reconciliation Commission. NURC-GTZ Conference on the Presentation of the grassroots consultation and evaluation report, Kigali, Hotel des Mille collines 25th of July 2002. Kigali: NURC, 2002. Available (pdf) at

Nyamugasira, Warren, Lincoln Ndogoni, and Solomon Nsabiyera. "Rwanda: Telling a different story." In Complex humanitarian emergencies: lessons from practitioners, edited by Mark Janz and Joann Slead, 186-215. Monrovia, Calif.: World Vision, 2000.

Paluck, E.L. "Reducing intergroup prejudice and conflict using the media: a field experiment in Rwanda." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96(3)(2009): 574-87. Available online

Prendergast, John, and David Smock. Post-Genocidal Reconstruction: Building Peace in Rwanda and Burundi Special Report No. 53. Washington DC: United States Institute of Peace, 15 September 1999. Available at

Reyntjens, Filip, and Stef Vandeginste. "Traditional Approaches to Negotiation and Mediation: Examples from Africa: Burundi, Rwanda, and Congo." In Peacebuilding: A Field Guide. edited by Luc Reychler and Thania Paffenholz, 228-137. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner, 2001.

Rutikanga, Bernard Noel. "Rwanda: Struggle for healing at the grassroots." In Artisans of peace: Grassroots peacemaking among Christian communities, edited by Mary Ann Cejka and Thomas Bamat. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2003.

Rutayisire, Antoine. Faith Under Fire: Testimonies of Christian Bravery. Essex: African Enterprise, 1995.

Sentama, Ezechiel. Peacebuilding in Post-Genocide Rwanda: The Role of Cooperatives in the Restoration of Interpersonal Relationships. PhD Thesis. Göteborg, Sweden: School of Global Studies, University of Gothemburg, 2009.

Staub, Ervin. "Preventing violence and generating humane values: Healing and reconciliation in Rwanda." International Review of the Red Cross. 852 (2003): 791-806. Available at

Staub, Ervin, Laurie Anne Pearlman, Alexandra Gubin, and Athanase Hagengimana. "Healing Reconciliation, Forgiving and the Prevention of Violence after genocide or mass killing: An intervention and its experimental evaluation in Rwanda." Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 24(3)(2005): 297-334. Available at,%20Pearlman,%20Gubin%20and%20Hagengimana.pdf

Steward, John. "Only Healing Heals: Concepts and Methods of Psycho-Social Healing in Post-Genocide Rwanda." In After Genocide: Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Reconciliation in Rwanda and Beyond, edited by Phil Clark and Zachary D. Kaufman. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008.

Steward, John. "Six Examples of Healing from Post-Genocide Rwanda." Paper presented at "International Perspectives on Peace and Reconciliation," University of Melbourne, July 2003.

Straus, Scott. "Origins and aftermaths: The dynamics of genocide in Rwanda and their post-genocide implications." In After mass crime: Rebuilding states and communities, edited by Béatrice Pouligny, Simon Chesterman and Albrecht Schnabel. Tokyo ; New York: United Nations University Press, 2007.

UN Development Program. "Governance and Peace: A Social Change Management Strategy for Vision 2020." In Turning Vision 2020 into Reality: From Recovery to Sustainable Human Development. National Human Development Report, Rwanda 2007, 65-84. New York: UNDP, 2007. Available at

Vandeginste, Stef. "Rwanda: Dealing with Genocide and Crimes against Humanity in the Context of Armed Conflict and Failed Political Transition." In Burying the Past: Making Peace and Doing Justice after Civil Conflict, edited by Nigel Biggar. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2003.

Vandeginste, Stef. "Victims of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes in Rwanda: The legal and institutional framework of their right to reparation." In Politics and the past: On repairing historical injustices, edited by John Torpey. Lanham MD, Oxford UK: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2003.

Waldorf,Lars. "Revisiting Hotel Rwanda: Genocide Ideology, Reconciliation, and Rescuers." Journal of Genocide Research 11(1)(March 2009): 101-125.

Wallace, Ian. "Post-conflict reconstruction: Experiences in Rwanda." Teddington, UK: Tearfund International Learning Zone, 2005. Available at

Webley, Radha. Report on Rwanda. Berkeley: War Crimes Study Center, Univesrity of California at Berkeley, n.d. (circa 2004) Available at (pdf).

Whitman, Tobie, and Jessica Gomez. Strategies for Policy Makers: Bringing Women into Government. Washington, DC: The Institute for Inclusive Security, March 2009.

Zorbas, Eugenia. Reconciliation in Post-Genocide Rwanda. African Journal of Legal Studies 1(1) (2004): 29-52.

Training Materials on Reconciliation and Conflict Resolution in Rwanda

Please note that inclusion of materials here does not signify endorsement. The titles are included here in order to assist researchers and trainers to survey and evaluate existing training materials used in or developed for people in Rwanda.

National Unity and Reconciliation Commission. Training Manual on Conflict Management. Kigali: Republic of Rwanda, National Unity and Reconciliation Commission, 2006.

Neufeldt, Reina, Larissa Fast, Robert Schreiter, Brian Starken, Duncan MacLaren, Jaco Cilliers, and John Paul Lederach. Peacebuilding: A Caritas Training Manual. Vatican City: Caritas Internationalist, 2002. Full document available at

Lloyd, Rhiannon, with Kristine Bresser. Healing the Wounds of Ethnic Conflict: The role of the church in healing, forgiveness and reconciliation Geneva: Le Rucher/Mercy Ministries, 1998.

Posterski, Don, and Michael Pountney. Reconciliation: Seeking Restored Relationships. Monrovia, CA: World Vision International, 2000.

Pearlman, Laurie Anne, and Ervin Staub, Trauma Research Education and Training Institute and UMass-Amherst. Materials on Connection and Understanding developed for the Rwanda: Advancing Healing and Reconciliation: Healing through Connection and Understanding Project, various dates.

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

For documents and cases in on the ICTR please see the Legacy website of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

Cobban, Helena. "Healing Rwanda: Can an international court deliver justice?" Boston Review (December 2003/January 2004). Available at

Human Rights Watch. Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity: A Digest of the Case Law of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. New York: HRW, January 2010. Available at

Peskin, Victor. International Justice in Rwanda and the Balkans: Virtual Trials and the Struggle for State Cooperation. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Swaak-Goldman, Olivia. "Kambanda v. Prosecutor. No ICTR 97-23-A." American Journal of International Law 95(3) (July 2001): 656-661.

Waldorf, Lars. "'A Mere Pretense of Justice': Complementarity, Sham Trials, and Victor's Justice at the Rwanda Tribunal." Fordham International Law Journal 33(4)(2011): 1220-1277. Available at

Special Issue. Journal of International Criminal Justice (3)(4)(September 2005). Table of contents at

National Courts and Gacaca Courts

African Rights. Rwanda: Death, despair and defiance. London: African Rights, August 1995.

Balint, Jennifer L. "The Place of Law in Addressing Internal Regime Conflicts." Law & Contemporary Problems 59(103)(Autumn 1996): 103-126.

Barnett, Michael N. Eyewitness to a genocide: The United Nations and Rwanda. Ithaca NY, London: Cornell University Press, 2002.

Borland, Rosilyne M. "The Gacaca Tribunals and Rwanda after Genocide: Effective Restorative Community Justice or Further Abuse of Human Rights?" Swords and Ploughshares 13(2)(Fall 2003).

Braley, Matthew Bersagel. "Rooting, Reforming, Restoring: A Framework for Justice in Rwanda." Journal of Lutheran Ethics 4(3). (March 2004).

Brandner, Anne. Justice & Reconciliation in Rwanda: An evaluation of judicial responses to genocide and mass atrocities. MA thesis, Political Science, Faculty of Graduate Studies, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada, 2003. Abstract available at

Clark Phil. "When the Killers Go Home." Dissent Summer 2005.

Clark, Phil, "Hybridity, Holism and Traditional Justice: The Case of the Gacaca Courts in Post-Genocide Rwanda." George Washington International Law Review 39(4)(2007).

Clark, Phil. "Interviews with Key Figures in Debates over Post Genocide Justice and Reconciliation in Rwanda and Uganda." Oxford International Review (2005-2006).

Connolly, Shannon. "Gacaca: ADR as a Response to Rwanda Genocide." Synergy 3(1)(2005).

Corey, Allison, and Sandra F. Joireman. "Retributive justice: The Gacaca courts in Rwanda." African Affairs 103(410)(2004): 73-89.

Daly, Erin. "Between Punitive and Reconstructive Justice: The Gacaca Courts in Rwanda." New York University Journal of International Law and Politics 34(2) (Winter 2002): 355-96.

Fierens, Jacques. "Gacaca Courts: Between Fantasy and Reality." Journal of International Criminal Justice 3(4)(2005): 896-919.

Gabisirege, Simon and Stella Babalola. Perceptions About the Gacaca Law in Rwanda: Evidence from a Multi-Method Study. Special Publication No. 19. Kigali: Université Nationale du Rwanda Centre de Gestion des Conflits Kigali, Rwanda Ministry of Justice, and Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Center for Communication Programs, April 2001. Available (pdf) at

Goldstein-Bolocan, Maya. "Rwandan Gacaca: An Experiment in Transitional Justice." Journal of Dispute Resolution (2004):355-400.

Hancock, Landon E., and Aysegul Keskin Zeren. "Whose Truth, Whose Justice? Religious and Cultural Traditions in Transitional Justice." 4(1)(Fall 2010). Available at

Hansen, Toran. The Gacaca Tribunals in Post-Genocide Rwanda. Saint Paul, Minnesota: Center for Restorative Justice and Peacemaking, School of Social Work, University of Minnesota, 2005.

Harrell. Peter. Rwanda's Gamble: Gacaca and a New Model of Transitional Justice. New York: Writers Club Press, 2003. read a review.

Human Rights Watch. Justice Compromised: The Legacy of Rwanda's Community-Based Gacaca Courts. New York: Human Rights Watch, May 2011.

Jones, Nicholas A., and Rob Nestor. "Sentencing Circles in Canada and the Gacaca in Rwanda: A Comparative Analysis." International Criminal Justice Review 21(1)(March 2011): 39-66.

Karbo, Tony, and Martha Mutisi. "Psychological Aspects of Post-Conflict Reconstruction: Transforming Mindsets: The Case of the Gacaca in Rwanda." Paper Prepared for the Ad Hoc Expert Group Meeting on Lessons Learned in Post-Conflict State Capacity: Reconstructing Governance and Public Administration Capacities in Post-Conflict Societies. Accra, GhanaAccra, UNDP/BCPR, October 2-4, 2008.

Karekezi, Urusaro Alice, Alphonse Nshimiyimana, and Beth Mutamba. "Localizing Justice: Gacaca Courts in Post-Genocide Rwanda." In My Neighbor, My Enemy: Justice and Community in the Aftermath of Mass Atrocity, edited by Eric Stover and Harvey Weinstein, 69-84.Cambridege UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Available (read only) at

Kirkby, Coel. "Rwanda's Gacaca Courts: A Preliminary Critique." Journal of African Law 50(2)(2006):94-117. Abstract available at

Le Mon, Christopher J. "Rwanda's Troubled Gacaca Courts." Human Rights Brief 14(2)(Winter 2007).

Morris, Madeline. "The Trials of Concurrent Jurisdiction: The Case of Rwanda." Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law 7(1996):349-374.

Mubangizi, Abdu. "Women Survivors of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide: Learning to Live with HIV/AIDS, and to Forgive the Perpetrators Under the New Gacaca Restorative Justice System." Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Restorative Justice, June, 2003.

Pankhurst, Donna, ed. Gendered peace: Women's struggles for post-war justice and reconciliation. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. New York, London: Routledge, 2008.

Raper, Jessica. "The Gacaca Experiment: Rwanda's Restorative Dispute Resolution Response to the 1994 Genocide." Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal 5(1)(2005). Abstract available at

Rettig, Max. "Gacaca: Truth, Justice, and Reconcilliation in Postconflict Rwanda?" African Studies Review 51(3)(December 2008): 25–50.

Reyntjens, Filip, and Stef Vandeginste. "Traditional Approaches to Negotiation and Mediation: Examples from Africa: Burundi, Rwanda, and Congo." In Peacebuilding: A Field Guide, edited by Luc Reychler, and Thania Paffenholz, 128-138. Boulder, London: Lynne Reinner Publishers, 2001.

Ridell, Jennifer. Addressing Crimes Against International Law: Rwanda's Gacaca in Practice. LLM thesis. University of Aberdeen, 2005.

Sarkin, Jeremy, "The Tension between Justice and Reconciliation in Rwanda: Politics, Human Rights, Due Process and the Role of the Gacaca Courts in Dealing with the Genocide." Journal of African Law 45(2)(2001):143-72.

Schabas, William A. "Justice, Democracy, and Impunity in Post-Genocide Rwanda: Searching for Solutions to. Impossible Problems." Criminal Law Forum 7 (1996): 523-560.

Schabas, William A. "Genocide Trials and Gacaca Courts." Journal of International Criminal Justice 3(2005): 1-17.

Soerensen, Majken Jul. "Truth, Justice and Security in Rwanda - Gacaca Courts as a Post-Genocide Reconciliation Effort." Lund Sweden: Transnational Foundation for Peace and Future Research, July 15, 2007. Available (pdf) at

Sosnov, Maya. "The Adjudication of Genocide: Gacaca and the Road to Reconciliation." Denver Journal of International Law and Policy 36(2)(2008): 125-153. Available (pdf file) at

Stevens, Joanna, and Penal Reform International. Access to justice in sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Traditional and Informal Justice Systems. Penal Reform International, 1998. Available at

Tiemessen, Alana Erin. "After Arusha: Gacaca Justice in Post-Genocide Rwanda." African Studies Quarterly 8(1)(Fall 2004). Abstract available at Full text (pdf) at

Uvin, Peter and Mironko, Charles. "Western and Local Approaches to Justice in Rwanda." Global Governance 9(2)(2003): 219-231.

Waldorf, Lars. "Rwanda's failing experiment in restorative justice." In Handbook of Restorative Justice: A Global Perspective, edited by Dennis Sullivan, and Larry Tifft, 422-432. London and New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2006. Abstract available at

Wierzynska, Aneta. "Consolidating democracy through transitional justice: Rwanda's Gacaca courts." New York University Law Review 79(2004):1934-1969. Abstract available at

The Genocide in Rwanda: History, Events, Impacts and Aftermath

The following list provides a general overview with emphasis on literature about the role of churches in Rwandan society and politics. For more comprehensive research on the history and causes of the genocide, please see other bibliographies.

Linda Kirschke. Broadcasting Genocide: Censorship, propaganda and state-sponsored violence in Rwanda 1990-1994. London: Article 19, 1996.

Bjørnlund, Matthias, Eric Markusen, Peter Steenberg, and Rafiki Ubaldo. "The Christian Churches and the Construction of a Genocidal Mentality in Rwanda." In Genocide in Rwanda: Complicity of the Churches?, edited by Carol Rittner, John K Roth, and Wendy Whitworth, 141-167. St. Paul, MN: Paragon, 2004.

Bleeker, Mô, and Andrea Bartoli. Genocide prevention. Politorbis 47(2)(2010).

Bowen, Roger W. "Genocide in Rwanda 1994 - An Anglican Perspective." In Genocide in Rwanda: Complicity of the Churches?, edited by Carol Rittner, John K Roth, and Wendy Whitworth, 37-48. St. Paul, MN: Paragon, 2004.

Caplan, Gerald. Rwanda: The Preventable Genocide. Report of the International Panel of Eminent Personalities to Investigate the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda and the Surrounding Events. Addis Ababa: Organisation for African Unity (OAU), 2000. Available at

Clark, Phil. "Hero, Failure, or Casualty? A Peacekeeper's Experience of Genocide." Dissent (Spring 2005).s

Dallaire, Roméo. Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda. Toronto: Random House, 2003.

Des Forges, Alison. Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda. Revised edition. New York: Human Rights Watch, 2004. Available online at

Gourevitch, Philip. We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will Be Killed With Our Families: Stories From Rwanda. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux Publishers, 1998.

Hatzfeld, Jean. The Antelope's Strategy: Living in Rwanda After the Genocide. Translated by Linda Coverdale. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009.

Hatzfeld, Jean. Life Laid Bare: The Survivors in Rwanda Speak. Translated by Linda Coverdale. New York: Other Press, 2007.

Hatzfeld, Jean. Machete Season: The Killers in Rwanda Speak, translated by Linda Coverdale. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005.

Human Rights Watch. Arming Rwanda: The Arms Trade and Human Rights Abuses in the Rwandan War. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994.

Human Rights Watch. The Rwandan Genocide: How It Was Prepared. New York: Human Rights Watch, April 2006. Available at

Human Rights Watch. Renewed Crisis in North Kivu. New York: Human Rights Watch, October 2007. Available at

Human Rights Watch. Struggling To Survive: Barriers to Justice for Rape Victims in Rwanda New York: Human Rights Watch, 2004. Available at

Ilibagiza, Immaculée, with Steve Erwin. Left to Tell: Discovering God Amidst the Rwandan Holocaust. Carlsbad CA: Hay House, 2007.

International Crisis Group. Rwanda at the End of the Transition: A Necessary Political Liberalisation. Africa Report No. 53 Brussels: ICG, 13 November 2002. Available at (English | français | Arabic)

Justino, Patricia, and Philip Verwimp. "Poverty Dynamics, Violent Conflict and Convergence in Rwanda." HiCN Working Paper 16. University of Sussex: Households in Conflict Network, April 2006

Lemarchand, René. The Dynamics of Violence in Central Africa. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009.

Longman, Timothy "Church Politics and the Genocide in Rwanda." Journal of Religion in Africa 31(2) (2001):163-86.

Mamdani, Mahmood. When victims become killers: Colonialism, nativism, and the genocide in Rwanda. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.

McCullum, Hugh. The Angels Have Left Us: The Rwanda Tragedy and the Churches. Geneva: World Council of Churches, 2005.

Melvern, Linda. A People Betrayed. The Role of the West in Rwanda's Genocide. London: Zed Books, 2000.

Omaar, Rayika, and Alex de Waal. Rwanda: Death, Despair and Defiance. Revised Edition. London: African Rights, 1995.

Power, Samantha. "Bystanders to Genocide." Atlantic Monthly (September 2001). Available at

Prunier, Gérard. Africa's World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Prunier, Gérard. The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide. New York: Columbia University Press, 1995.

Reyntjens, Filip. "Post-1994 Politics in Rwanda: problematising 'liberation' and 'democratisation'." Third World Quarterly 27(6)(Septmeber 2006): 1103-1117.

Reyntjens, Filip. "Rwanda, Ten Years On: From Genocide to Dictatorship." African Affairs 103(411) (April 2004):177-210.

Rittner, Carol, John K Roth, and Wendy Whitworth, eds. Genocide in Rwanda: Complicity of the Churches? St. Paul, MN: Paragon, 2004. See table of contents.

Salzman, Todd. "Catholics and Colonialism: The Church's Failure in Rwanda." Commonweal (23 May 1997): 17-19.

Schabas, William A. "Hate Speech in Rwanda: The Road to Genocide." McGill Law Journal 46 (2000): 141-171.

Schabas, William A. "The Rwandan Courts in Quest of Accountability: Genocide Trials and Gacaca Courts." Journal of International Criminal Justice 3(4)(2005): 879-895

Sibomana, Andre. "Never Again?: The Church and Genocide in Rwanda." Commonweal 5 (1999).

Stanton, Gregory H. "Rwandan Genocide: Why Early Warning Failed." Journal of African Conflicts and Peace Studies 1(2)(2009): 6-25.

Thompson, Allan, ed. The Media and the Rwanda Genocide. Ottawa: Pluto Press, Fountain Publishers and IDRC, 2007. Available online at IDRC:

Turner, Thomas. The Congo Wars: Conflict, Myth and Reality. London, UK: Zed Books, 2007.

Twagiramariya, Clotilde, and Meredeth Turshen. "'Favours' to give and 'consenting' victims: The sexual politics of survival in Rwanda." In What women do in wartime: Gender and conflict in Africa, edited by Meredeth Turshen, and Clotilde Twagiramariya. London, New York: Zed Books, 1998.

Ugirashebuja, Octave. "The Church and the Genocide in Rwanda," translated by Wendy Whitworth. In Genocide in Rwanda: Complicity of the Churches?, edited by Carol Rittner, John K Roth, and Wendy Whitworth, 49-64. St. Paul, MN: Paragon, 2004.

United States Institute of Peace. Rwanda: Accountability for War Crimes and Genocide. Special Report No. 13. Washington DC: USIP, January, 1995. Available online at

Uvin, Peter. Aiding Violence: The Development Enterprise in Rwanda. Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press, 1998.

Uvin, Peter. "Difficult choices in the new post-conflict agenda: The international community in Rwanda after the genocide." Third World Quarterly 22(2)(April 2001): 177-189.

Van Hoyweghen, Saskia. "The Disintegration of the Catholic Church of Rwanda: A Study of the Fragmentation of Political and Religious Authority." African Affairs 95(380)(July 1996): 379-401

Verwimp, Philip. "Peasant Ideology and Genocide in Rwanda Under Habyarimana." Newhaven, CT: MacMillan Center Working Paper Database, n.d.

Verwimp, Philip. "Testing the double genocide thesis for central and southern Rwanda." Journal of Conflict Resolution 47(4)(2003): 423-442.

Verwimp, Philip. 2005. "An Economic Profile of Peasant Perpetrators of Genocide: Micro-Level Evidence from Rwanda." Journal of Development Economics 77(2005): 297-323.

Yanagizawa-Drott, David. Propaganda and Conflict: Evidence From the Rwandan Genocide. Quarterly Journal of Economics 129(4):1947-1994.


Hinson, Laura Waters, Producer and Director. As We Forgive Those: Reconciliation in Rwanda. Videorecording. Narrated by Mia Farrow. Washington, DC: Laura Waters Hinson, 2008. 53 minutes. Trailer (YouTube)

Aghion, Anne et al. In Rwanda we say... The family that does not speak dies. Videorecording produced by Laurent Bocahut, and Anne Aghion. Gacaca Productions / Dominant 7 / in association with NDR/ARTE. Brooklyn NY: Icarus Films, 2004. VHS 54 minutes (English subtitles).

Aghion, Anne et al. Gacaca: Living Together Again in Rwanda?. Videorecording produced by Philip Brooks, Laurent Bocahut, and Anne Aghion. Dominant 7, Gacaca Productions, and Planète. Brooklyn NY: Icarus Films, 2002. VHS 55 minutes (English subtitles).

Barker, Greg. Frontline: Ghosts of Rwanda. Washington DC: PBS, 2004

Bradshaw, Steve, and Ben Loeterman. Frontline: The Triumph of Evil, produced by Mike Robinson, and Ben Loeterman. Washington DC: PBS, January 26, 1999.

de Heusch Luc, and Kathleen de Béthune. A Republic Gone Mad: Rwanda 1894-1994. New York: First Run/Icarus Films, 1996.

Meier, Trevor, Producer and Director. Rwanda: Hope Rises. Vancouver, BC: Cinesketch Media Group, 2009. 65 minutes. Trailer (YouTube). Interview with Producer (YouTube 10 minutes).

Raymont, Peter. Shake hands with the devil: The journey of Roméo Dallaire. Video Recording produced by White Pine Pictures. Ottawa: National Film Board of Canada, April 2004.

Torrice, Andrea, and Amnesty International. Forsaken Cries: The Story of Rwanda, produced by Kathi Austin. New York: Amnesty International USA, 1997.

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